Back to the magazine2021 year №2

Artistic Means and Technology of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves’ Drawings in the XVIIIth Century

Read the postRead the postDownload the post
The authors of the publication:
Veremeyenko Taras
p.:
110–119
UDC:
7.046.3:27-523.4(477-25)
Bibliographic description:
Veremeienko, T. (2021) Artistic Means and Technology of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves’ Drawings in the XVIIIth Century. Folk Art and Ethnology, 1 (389), 110–119.

Author

Veremeyenko Taras

a Ph.D. candidate at the NASU M. Rylskyi IASFE. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6753-9583

 

Artistic Means and Technology of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves’ Drawings in the XVIIIth Century

 

Abstract

 The article, based on analysing the preserved images in the so called kuzhbushky (Kunstbuch-collections), sheds light upon the origin of the Kyiv-Lavra drawings, their source base, as well as the process of the icon-painting workshop functioning. The purpose of the article is to consider the state of historiographical elaboration of the topic, the source base, the history of the icon-painting workshop, and to publish some new Kyiv-Lavra drawings. The author intends to analyse the latter’s authorship and style too. It can be conductive to finding out the names of paint pigments, colours, and translating them into modern Ukrainian. The methodology is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity, along with induction and deduction, as well as historical-comparative, linguistic and iconological methods. Scientific novelty consists in the author’s investigating some new, hitherto unexplored aspects of history of the Kyiv-Lavra icon-painting workshop, its chiefs and students. A string of the Kyiv-Lavra drawings until quite recently unpublished are now analysed and introduced into science by the article’s author. The scholar translates into modern Ukrainian the old names of yet unexplored paint pigments and colours. It is ascertained that every Kyiv-Lavra drawing is singular and has an exceptionally Ukrainian spirit. Conclusions. The submitted findings demonstrate, that the Kyiv-Lavra icon-painting workshop taught people the art of icons and mural painting.  There was a certain freedom of interpretations of religious subjects via countenancing Ukrainian traditions, however solely in the Christian style. We can observe a significant influence of the Ukrainian Baroque. All now published drawings are unique. There were certain confidants being eligible to buy paint pigments for the Kyiv-Lavra. Imported paints were highly valued by teachers and masters. Occasionally, these paints could serve as a means of paying salaries. Names of pigments and substances were borrowed mostly from Western languages. Some types of paints sometimes served as certain marks on drawings indicating which colour was to be painted. Drawings could be considered mainly as sketches rather than just exercises, that is, ordinary student works. Therefore, we should keep on researching this unique art school at the monastery of worldwide significance.

 

Keywords

Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves, Kyiv, icon-painting, workshop, drawing, kuzhbushky, art.

 

References

  1. Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine’s Institute of Manuscripts (thereafter – VNLU IM): f. 229, dossier8.
  2. VNLU IM: f.229, dossier 21.
  3. Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine in Kyiv (thereafter – CSHAUK): f. 128, inv. 1, dossier 181.
  4. CSHAUK: f. 128, inv. 1, dossier 186.
  5. CSHAUK: f. 128, inv. 1, dossier 191.
  6. CSHAUK: f. 128, inv. 1, dossier 254.
  7. CSHAUK: f. 128, inv. 1, dossier 440.
  8. CSHAUK: f. 128, inv. 1, unimportant dossier 332.
  9. BILODID,Ivan (editorial committee’s chairman). A Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in 11 Volumes. UkrSSR’s Academy of Sciences’ Oleksandr Potebnia Institute of Linguistics. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1973, vol. 4: I–M, 840 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  10. VEREMEYENKO,Taras. Some Sources for the History of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves’ Icon-Painting Workshop (Latter Part of the XVIIIth to Early XIXth Century). In: Viktor VASHKEVYCH, ed.‑in‑chief, Hylaea: A Scientific Bulletin. Collected Research Papers. Kyiv: M. Drahomanov National Pedagogical University, 2018, iss. 134, pp. 147–152 [in Ukrainian].
  11. VEREMEYENKO, Taras. Drawings of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves’ Icon-Painting Workshop in the XVIIIth Century: Text and Image Interaction. In: Hennadiy KAZAKEVYCH, editorial board’s editor‑in‑chief. Text and Image: Essential Problems in Art History. A Scientific Online Journal. Kyiv: T. Shevchenko Kyiv National University, 2017, iss. 1(3), pp. 20–29 [in Ukrainian].
  12. ZHOLTOVSKYI, Pavlo. Drawings of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves’ Icon-Painting Workshop: An Album-Catalogue. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1982, 283pp. [in Ukrainian].
  13. ZHOLTOVSKYI,Pavlo. Artistic Activities in Ukraine in the XVIth to XVIIIth Centuries. UkrSSR’s Academy of Sciences, Museum of Ethnography and Crafts. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1983, 177 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  14. ZAMIATINA,Natalia. Terminology of Russian Icon Painting. Moscow: Languages of Russian Culture, 1997, 270 pp. (Language. Semiotics. Culture Series) [in Russian].
  15. ISTOMIN,Mykhaylo. On the History of Painting at the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves. In: Readings at the Nestor the Chronicler Historical Society, 1895, vol. 9, pp. 66–75 [in Russian].
  16. ISTOMIN,Mykhaylo. Teaching Painting at the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves in the XVIIIth Century. In: Nikolay SOBKO, ed., Fine and Applied Arts. 1901, no. 10, pp. 291–310 [in Russian].
  17. ISTOMIN,Mykhaylo. Teaching Painting at the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves in the XVIIIth Century. In: Nikolay SOBKO, ed., Fine and Applied Arts. 1901, no. 11, pp. 311–318 [in Russian].
  18. KRYSKO,Vadim (ed.‑in‑chief). The Dictionary of the Russian Language in the XIth to XVIIth Centuries. RAS Viktor Vinogradov Russian Language Institute. Moscow: Science, 2011, iss. 29: (Сулегъ – Тольмиже), 480 pp. [in Russian].
  19. MELNYCHUK,Oleksandr. An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in Seven Volumes. NAS of Ukraine’s Oleksandr Potebnia Institute of Linguistics. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1982, vol. 1: Г), 632 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  20. MELNYCHUK,Oleksandr. An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in Seven Volumes. NAS of Ukraine’s Oleksandr Potebnia Institute of Linguistics. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1985, vol. 2: Копці), 572 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  21. MELNYCHUK,Oleksandr. An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in Seven Volumes. NAS of Ukraine’s Oleksandr Potebnia Institute of Linguistics. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1989, vol. 3: (КораМ), 552 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  22. MELNYCHUK,Oleksandr. An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in Seven Volumes. NAS of Ukraine’s Oleksandr Potebnia Institute of Linguistics. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 2003, vol. 4: П), 656 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  23. MELNYCHUK,Oleksandr. An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: in Seven Volumes. NAS of Ukraine’s Oleksandr Potebnia Institute of Linguistics. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 2012, vol. 6: (УЯ), 568 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  24. STEPOVYK, A HistoryoftheKyivCavesMonastery: A Monograph.  Kyiv: UOC-KP Publishing Department, 200, 554 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  25. STEPOVYK,Dmytro. Ukrainian Graphic Art of the XVIth to XVIIIth Centuries. The Evolution of Its Image System. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1982, 333 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  26. TYMCHENKO,Tetiana. Artistic Materials of XVIIIth‑Century Ukrainian Painters (According to the Documents Published by Pavlo Zholtovskyi). In: Vasyl CHERNETS, ed.‑in‑chief, Proceedings of the International Theoretical and Practical Conference «Museums and Restoration as Instruments of Cultural Heritage Preservation: Present DayChallenges. June 07–08, 2018, Kyiv (Ukraine)». Kyiv: NAGMSCA, 2018, pp. 263–267 [in Ukrainian].
  27. UMANTSEV,Fedir. Some Materials for a Dictionary of Ukrainian Artists, Handicraftsmen, Managers of Art Works, and Art Patrons in the XVIIIth to Early XXth Centuries (Based on Archival Documents of the Kyiv-Lavra of the Caves). In: Hanna SKRYPNYK, ed.‑in‑chief, Researches of the Fine Arts. Kyiv: NASU’s IASFE, 2008, no. 1 (21), pp. 102–129 [in Ukrainian].
  28. UMANTSEV,Fedir. The Gate Church of the Trinity (Lavra of the Caves). Kyiv, 1970, 210 pp. [in Ukrainian].
  29. FILATOV,Viktor. Icon-Painter’s Glossary. Moscow: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox Theological Institute, 1997, 287 pp. [in Russian].
  30. LINDE, Samuel Bogumił. Słownik języka polskiego w 6 tomach [Dictionary of the Polish Language: in Six Volumes]. Edited by August Bielowski. 2nd edition. Lviv, 1855, vol. 2. 691 pp. [in Polish].