Tryniak Liliya – a postgraduate of the Vasyl Stefanyk Ciscarpathian National University, a research fellow of the National Hutsulshchyna and Pokuttia Folk Art Museum
Contribution of Ukrainian Intellectuals to Ethnographic Research of the Pokuttia region (Second Half of the XIXth to Early XXth Centuries)
The article analyses the folkloric and ethnographic records made in Pokuttia by local intellectuals in the mid- to late XIXth – early XXth centuries. It is ascertained that the 1830s–1840s can be considered as the commencement of ethnographic research of Pokuttia. This period was related to the ethnographic activities of The Rusian Trinity. They were the earliest who began going to see ordinary people and pursuing the work on gathering, recording songs, tales, narratives and sayings. Among the associates of The Rusian Trinity, Ya. Holovatskyi was the first one to depart to an ethnographic journey. In the issue of those trips, the researcher has left behind valuable ethnographic materials originated from the terrains of Pokuttia. In particular, there were ones about folk nourishment, clothes, and a way of housekeeping. His other studies incidentally had mentions of Pokuttian beliefs and folklore as well.
In the same period, local teacher H. Ilkevych was also engaged in Pokuttia ethnological studies. His ethnographic records were collected in Kolomyya and Horodenka districts. The researcher’s most efficient work was done within the frame of collecting Pokuttia folk sayings and proverbs. It is worth remarking that his miscellany was one of the earliest separate ethnographic editions of that time.
In the 1850s, the stage of stagnation took place in ethnological activities. However, since the late 1860s, a new surge of interest in Ukrainian culture had developed amidst the Ukrainian public. In the first half of the 1870s, a well-known public figure, lawyer, scholar and folklorist M. Buchynskyi continued to investigate the ethnological heritage of Pokuttia. He has carried out a great deal of work on collecting folk materials. He has gathered most of his ethnographic materials in the villages of Hrynivtsi, Kolyntsi, Markivtsi and Kutyshchi in Tlumach District. His unpublished materials are presrved in various funds of scientific libraries.
Since the late 1880s, in the pages of such periodicals as Friend (“Друг”) and Truth (“Правда”) had been issued the studies of other domestic ethnologists. Such a published research was M. Koltsuniak`s study Wedding in Kovalivka. M. Koltsuniak was a teacher and public figure. His description of the wedding contains extensive information on each moment of wedding ceremony, as well as has a well-defined structural precision. The researcher distinctly divided the solemnity into individual components, while exposing each of them in succession. The description is accompanied by auctorial comments, in which the author endeavours to reveal the semantics of certain customs existing in the country of Kolomyya Foothills.
The early XXth century was marked by a new phase in the development of Ukrainian folklore and ethnography. This period was characterized as a quite fruitful in the realm of ethnographic research. The Ethnographic Committee, which had been created at the Shevchenko Scientific Society, contributed to it. During this period, a large number of Pokuttian intellectuals, including V. Ravliuk, I. Voloshynskyi, O. Ivanchuk, and A. Onyshchuk, was attracted to collecting ethnological materials. It was in this time that materials from the region were vastly represented in the Shevchenko Scientific Society’s editions.
Thus, in the issue of ethnographic activities of Ukrainian intellectuals in the mid- to late XIXth to early XXth centuries, there has been accumulated a considerable layer of observations from various spheres of Pokuttian spiritual culture. Their publications on ethnology were all but the sole ones thenadays and are still topical for modern ethnologists.
Pokuttia, intellectuals, ethnographic studies.
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