Radovych Roman – a Ph. D. in History, a research officer at Historical Ethnology Department of the NASU Institute of Ethnology
Formation of Log Cabin Building Method on the Territories of Polissia
The submitted article, being based on archeological and written sources, as well as author`s field materials, gives a general outline of formation and development of log cabin building method on the territory of Polissia throughout Ist–IInd millennia CE. It also ascertains that this technique of Polishchuks’ abode construction is deeply rooted. It had been employed by local autochthons at least since the Early Iron Age (by the tribes of Zarubyntsi archeological culture). Cribwork dwellings occurred here, to some extent, throughout the Ist mil CE. Once again, above-ground blockhouses became a dominant type of dwellings on the Polissia territory in the XIIth–XIIIth centuries. As for log cabin’s design philosophy, it cannot be established more or less precisely for the time up to the third quarter of the Ist mil CE due to the state of archeological objects’ safety. Likely enough, blockhouses, at that period, were erected by using the technique of rarefied framework or its varieties. However, monuments of the Xth to XIIIth centuries detected in the forest zone (at the same time, on Polissia) permit quite definitely retracing the process of upgrading local log cabin techniques: blockhouses were put together mostly from pine logs 15–20 centimetres in diameter. Separate rows of beams were tightly adjusted to each other; there was used the notching called v oblo (with bowl-like hollows atop of beam rows). Heat engineering characteristics of log cabins were improved via using longitudinal slots (drachka), gained into the upper planes of beam rows, with mossy pads.
Thus, at the period spanning the XIIth to XIIIth centuries, in the forest zone, there have developed main technological methods of the East Slavonic log cabin construction, which have persisted on the territory as relict phenomena of house building of the Ukrainians (Polishchuks properly), Belarusians and Russians up to the XVIIIth, and in some places even as late as the end of the XIXth century.
Polissia, wall, cribwork method, lock, rarefied framework.
- Archives of the Museum of Folk Architecture and Life in Lviv. Fund AP, 6175 / 3. D-106.
- ARTAMONOV, M. Buildings of Krasnyi Kholm district. Ethnographic expedition to Upper Volga. Peasant buildings of Yaroslavl-Tver region. Leningrad, 1926, 122 pp.
- BARAN, V. Ancient Slavs. Ukraine through the centuries: in fifteen volumes. Kyiv: Alternatyvy, 1998, Vol. 3, 335 pp.
- BARAN, V. East Carpathian region in the V–VІІ centuries AD. In: EthnogenesisandethnichistoryofthepopulationofUkrainianCarpathians. Archaeology and anthropology. Lviv, 1999, Vol1, pp. 263–308.
- BLOMKVIST, E. Peasant buildings of the Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians (settlements, dwellings and household constructions). East Slavic ethnographic collection: Essays of folk material culture of the Russians, UkrainiansandBelarusians in theXІX– early XXth centuries. Moscow: AS USSR Publishers, 1956, pp. 3–458.
- VERHOVSKA, M. On the creation history of Polissia architectural exposure in the National Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of Ukraine. Problems of the preservation, recreation and popularization of historical-cultural heritage in the context of open-air museums work: Materials of the first international conference. Lviv: Apriori, 2013, Issue 1, pp. 57–69. (Collection of the scientific papers of the Museum of Folk Architecture and Life in Lviv).
- VERHOVSKYI, S. Ancient folk building of Ukrainian and Belarusan Polissia. Folk Art and Ethnography, 1979, 2, 74–80.
- VERHOVSKYI, S. Investigation of the ancient dwelling of Polissia. In: RYCHKOV, P., ed. Architectural heritage of Volyn: collection of scientific papers. Rivne: PP DM, 2012, Issue 3, 315 pp., ill.
- VERHOVSKYI, S. Zarichne district monuments in the exposure of the National Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of Ukraine. Western Polissia: history and culture. Proceedings of the regional ethnographic conference, dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Zarichne district creation and the 20th anniversary of the disaster at Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Rivne: Publisher Zen O. M., 2008, Iss. 2, pp. 107–119.
- VERHOVSKYI, S. Home temples of Volhynia as an embodiment of regional traditions of house building. History and contemporaneity of Volhynia. Zhydychyn – through the centuries: scientific papers. Lutsk, 2007, Iss. 3, pp.76–81.
- HRYTSENKO, P., ed. DialectsofChornobylzone: texts. Kyiv: Dovira, 1996, 358 pp.
- GUPALO, K. Podol in ancient Kiev. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1982, 127 pp.
- GURKOV, V. Settlements. Polesie. Material culture. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1988, pp. 279–333, ill.
- DANYLIUK, A. Traditional architecture of the Ukrainian regions: Polissia. Lviv: Ivan Franko LNU publishing centre, 2001, 147pp., ill.
- ZELENIN, D. Description of the manuscripts of the scientific archives of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society. Petrograd: A. V. Orlov printing-house, 1914, Iss. 1, 484 pp. + ІІІ–X [preface].
- KOBYCHEV, V. Settlements and dwelling of the nations of Northern Caucasus in the XІX–XXcenturies. Moscow: Nauka, 1982, 194 pp.
- KOLCHIN, B. Woodworking. In: RYBAKOV, B., ed. Ancient Rus. City, castle, village. Moscow: Nauka, 1985, 430 pp.
- KOSMINA, T. Traditions and innovations in the architecture of the national habitation of Kyiv and Kyiv region. Ethnography of Kyiv and Kyiv region: traditions and contemporaneity. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1986, pp. 157–200.
- LYSENKO, P. Berestye.Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika, 1985, 399 pp., ill., 4 separate sheets of drafts.
- LOKOTKO, A. Belarusan folk architecture (Mid-XІXth – XXcentury). Minsk: Navuka i tekhnika, 1991, 285 pp.
- LOMOVA, M. Reconnaissance outing to Ukrainian Polesie. Soviet ethnography, 1953, 4, 127–132.
- Maksimov, E. Zarubintsy culture on the territory of Ukrainian SSR. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1982, 182 pp.
- MARKOVICH, Ya. Proceedings on Malorossiya, its population and works. [Saint-Petersburg]: at the Provincial government, 1798, Part 1, 103 pp.
- MOTSIA, O. The Carpathians in the X–XІV centuries. EthnogenesisandethnichistoryoftheUkrainianCarpathianspopulation: in four volumes. Archaeology and anthropology. Lviv: NAS of Ukraine Institute of Ethnology, 1999, Vol. 1, pp. 341–360.
- NIKOLSKAYA, T. The hillfort of Slobodka in the XІІ–XІІІ centuries. Moscow: Nauka, 1987, 188 pp.
- OPOLOVNIKOV, A. Russian wooden architecture: civil architecture. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1983, 287 pp., ill.
- 27. PRYKHODNIUK, O. Eastern Carpathians of the VІІІ–ІX centuries. EthnogenesisandethnichistoryoftheUkrainianCarpathianspopulation: in four volumes. Archaeology and anthropology. Lviv: NAS of Ukraine Institute of Ethnology, 1999, Vol. 1, pp.309–340.
- PRIKHODKO, N. Some issues of the history of dwelling in Ukraine. Ancient habitation of the Eastern Europe nations. Moscow: Nauka, 1975, pp. 245–275.
- PUHOLOVOK, Yu. Building matter of the chronicle Siveriany. Opishne: Ukrainian Ethnology, 2016, 360 pp.
- RADOVYCH, R. Technology of the log house erection (XІX – early XXth century). Ukrainian Polissia: materials of historical-ethnographic research. Ovruch region. Lviv: NAS of Ukraine Institute of Ethnology, 1999, Iss. 2, 1995, pp. 99–116.
- RADOVYCH, R. Technique and technology of traditional dwelling and household building in Polissia of the second half of the XІX – the first half of the XXcenturies. Ukrainian Polissia: materials of historical-ethnographic research. Kyivan Polissia. Lviv: NAS of Ukraine Institute of Ethnology, 1999, Iss. 1, 1994, pp. 62–82.
- RADOVYCH, R. Traditional dwelling of Ukrainians of the Southern Podillia of the second half of the XІX – early XXth century: structural-technological aspect (after the materials of Khmelnytskyi oblast). BulletinofLvivUniversity. Historical Series. Lviv: Ivan Franko LNU, 2010, Iss. 45, pp.437–462.
- RADOVYCH, R. Traditional building in the Zone of Alienation: problems of research and monuments preservation. The ethnology notebooks, 2013, 4, 575–585.
- RAPPOPORT, P. Old Russian dwelling. Archaeology of the USSR. (Code of archaeological sources. E1–32). Leningrad: Nauka (Leningrad department), 1975, 178 pp.
- ROZHKO, M. Cities, wooden building, petroglyphic and defense constructions of the Carpathians of the ІX–XІV centuries. EthnogenesisandethnichistoryofthepopulationofUkrainianCarpathians: in four volumes. Archaeology and anthropology. Lviv, 1999, Vol 1, pp. 361–460.
- SAHAIDAK, M. Old-Kyivan Podil: problems of topography, stratigraphy, chronology. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1991, 168 pp.
- SILETSKYI, R. The problem of typology of heating devices of ancient dwelling in Ukraine (structural and functional peculiarities of an oven). Proceedings of T. Shevchenko Scientific Society. Transactions of Ethnography and Folkloristics Section. Lviv, 2001, Vol. 262, pp. 230–247.
- HAVRYLIUK, N. Dictionary –reference book of archaeology. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1996, 430 pp.
- SOPOLYHA, M. Living quarters in folk building of north-east part of Snynshchyna in the second half of the XІX and early XXth centuries. In: CHABYNIAK, I., ed. Collection of scientific papers of the Ukrainian Culture Museum in Svidník. Svidník, 1972, 6, 119–140.
- STELMAKH, H. Settlement, homestead, dwelling. In: HUSLYSTYI, K., ed. Ukrainians: historical-ethnographic monography: (Institute for Art Studies, Folklore and Ethnography). Kyiv: Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian SSR Publishers, 1959, Vol. 1, pp. 290–346.
- SUMBADZE, L. Georgiandarbazi. Tbilisi: Zarya Vostoka, 1960, 42 pp., ill.
- TARANUSHENKO, S. Barns of Ukrainian Polissia. Folk Art and Ethnography, 1968,3, 60–64.
- FYLYPCHUK, M. Slavic settlements of VІІІ–X centuries in Ukrainian Ciscarpathia. Lviv: Astroliabiya, 2012, 312 pp. + 8 maps.
- SHAFONSKII, A. Topographic description of Chernigov governorate with a brief geographical and historical account of Little Russia, which parts form the governorate. Kiev: in University printing-house, 1851, 697 pp.
- YAKIMOVICH, Yu. Wooden architecture of Belarusan Palessia: XVІІ–XІXcenturies. Minsk: Navuka i tekhnika, 1978, 150 pp.
- BUTI, G. Lacasadegliindoeuropei Tradizione e archeologia. Firenze, 1977, 406 pp.
- DMOCHOWSKI, Z. Sprawozdanie ze studijów nad poleskiem budownictwem drzewnem w r. 1934–35. Biuletyń historji sztuki і kultury. Warszawa, 1934–1935, R. 3, S. 311–335.
- DMOCHOWSKI, Z. Ze studiów nad poleskim budownictwem drzewnym. Buletyń historii sztuki і kultury, 1937, R. V, S. 165–217.
- JAGIEŁA, K. Formy węgłów chałup zrdreębowych. In: Komentarze do polskiego Atlasu Etnograficznego. Budownictwo. Wroclaw, 1995, Vol. 2, pp. 71–83.
- MOSZYŃSKI, K. The Slavs folk culture. Material culture. Kraków, 1929, part 1, 710 pp., ill.
- MOSZYŃSKI, K. O kulturze ludowej południowj-środkowego Polesia. Zemia. Warszawa, 1925, 6–8, 120–131.