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Documents of the Bolshevik Authorities on the Forced Displacement of Ukrainian Railwaymen

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The authors of the publication:
Serhiychuk Volodymyr
p.:
14-33
UDC:
323.232:930.29(477)
Bibliographic description:
Serhiychuk, V. (2018) Documents of the Bolshevik Authorities on the Forced Displacement of Ukrainian Railwaymen. Folk Art and Etnology, 1 (371), 14–33.

Author

SERHIYCHUKVOLODYMYR

a Doctor of History, a professor at the Ukrainian Ancient and Recent History Department of the T. Shevchenko Kyiv National University

 

Documents of the Bolshevik Authorities on the Forced Displacement of Ukrainian Railwaymen

 

Abstract

The support of national liberation movement by Ukrainian railwaymen have put on their guard the Russian Bolsheviks, who, in late 1920, occupied the lands of the Ukrainian People’s Republic. As early as on October 13, 1920, Bolshevik People’s Commissar Trotskyi issued a special order, which provided for the forced displacement of nationally conscious Ukrainian railwaymen to the northern regions of Russia for their complete assimilation. Thus, since the next month, Ukrainian specialists disliked by the Russian authorities had been sent by force to the outback of Russia. The first of these suspects were 11 railwaymen of the Cherkasy railway station, being resolved to be deported to Russia on November 15, 1920.

In order to regulate the process of displacement, on January 26, 1921, there was issued a detailed instruction on its implementation, which with particular wariness provided for making pertinent lists of those railwaymen who were planned to be deported from Ukraine or to be internally displaced. First of all, an attention was paid to the Donbas, where armed actions supported by local railwaymen against the Soviet authorities were being lasted, in particular, in areas of such railway junctions as Lyman, Slovyansk, Popasna, and Hryshyno.

Bolshevik commissars tried to solve analogous problem at the railway section of Kremenchuk – Znamyanka as well. For instance, on May 30, 1921, it was decreed to send a telegram on the preparation of lists of persons subject to secondment or displacement for political reasons, having beforehand gathered relevant materials on one case or another, and toimmediately arrange the transfer of reliable and staunch political workers and special workers to the railway station of Znamyanka.

By August 1921, 24 political workers and 35 technicians had been transferred to the Donets Railway, 36 technicians – to the Southern Railway, 10 political workers and 42 technicians – to the Katerynoslav Railway. At the Kiev-Voronezh Railway, political workers changed every month or bimonthly, while there had been transferred 81 technicians.

The process lasted until the Holodomor-genocide of 1932–1933: a wave of never-ceasing peasant uprisings in Ukraine against the Bolshevik authorities was accompanied by the permanent cleaning-up of Ukrainian railways from the Ukrainians. For example, as of January 1, 1931, out of 115 people in the governing body of Ukrainian railways, there were 35 Ukrainians aside from 67 Russians.

Efforts of the authorities in this direction continued from then on, as can be seen from the proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist (B) Party of Ukraine to the Central Committee of the CPSU (B) of November 11, 1931, regarding candidacies for secretaries of party organizers of the departments of Ukrainian railways; most of them were not Ukrainians.

Thus, Ukrainian railways were becoming non-Ukrainian in their nature.

 

Keywords

genocide of Ukrainians, deportation of nationally conscious railwaymen to the North, Russification of Ukrainian railways.

 

References

  1. The Central State Archives of Supreme Authorities and Governments of Ukraine (Central Executive Committee of Ukraine). Fund 183, Inventory 4, Dossier 
  2. The Central State Archives of Supreme Authorities and Governments of Ukraine (Central Executive Committee of Ukraine). Fund 183, Inventory 5, Dossier 
  3. The Central State Archives of Supreme Authorities and Governments of Ukraine (Central Executive Committee of Ukraine). Fund 183, Inventory 5, Dossier 
  4. Morenets, V. The land, coated with the blood. Kyiv, 2013, pp. 114.
  5. Robitnycha hazeta, Kyiv, 1917, June, 10.
  6. Serhiychuk, V. Ukrainian sobornist. The Ukrainians renaissance in 1917–1920s. Kyiv: Ukrainska vydavhycha spilka, 1999.
  7. Ukrainska Narodnia Respublika. Tyflis, 1918, February, 15.