a Doctor of History (a Ph.D. in History), an associate professor, a head of Ethnology of Ukrainians Department of the Ethnology Centre at the Cultural Heritage Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova, a chief of the Petro Mohyla Ukrainian Society, an editor of the radio journal Renaştere-Відродження of the Public Company Teleradio-Moldova (Chişinǎu, Moldova)
a Doctor of Pedagogics (a Ph.D. in Pedagogy), an associate professor, a senior research fellow of Ethnology of Ukrainians Department of the Ethnology Centre at the Cultural Heritage Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova, an editor of the radio journal Renaştere-Відродження of the Public Company Teleradio-Moldova (Chişinǎu, Moldova)
Ukrainians in the Independent Republic of Moldova (1991 to 2018)
Basing on the numerous sources, the authors are considering the main ethnodemographic and ethnocultural processes among the Ukrainians of the Republic of Moldova – the second largest ethnic group after the title ethnos, which is distinguished by its bright originality and its deep historical roots, that dates back to ancient times. The isolation from life-giving nation-building processes in Ukraine, lack of elementary rights to study and nourish their native language, history and culture have affected significantly on the level of national consciousness of local Ukrainians, led to active processes of assimilation, and sometimes, marginalization. The process of the Ukrainian community revival has started only with the independence gaining by the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. This process can be divided conditionally into three periods:
- The period of self-awareness (1989 – mid-1990s). The foundations of the legislation in the field of the Ukrainian national minority rights protection have been laid. It has given the impulse to the appearance of the first Ukrainian social organizations, educational institutions, where the study of the mother tongue has been introduced. The foundation of the Department of History, Culture and Language of Ukrainians of Moldova at the Institute of National Minorities of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, opening of the Ukrainian language departments at the A. Russo Beltsi State University, T. Shevchenko Tiraspol State University and Pedagogical College in Lipkany, Lesya Ukrainka Library, the introduction of Ukrainian-language programs on the National Radio and Television, Ukrainian magazines, amateur creative groups, etc. have happened. The ethnic consciousness of the local Ukrainian population is awakening at this time.
- The period of ethnic values strengthening (mid-1990s – 2010) is characterized by further improvement of the legislation, the Republic accession of the international legal acts in the field of the national minorities protection; comprehensive study of the history, language and culture of Ukrainians of the region, the carring out of the first expeditions to the Ukrainian villages of Moldova, the publication of scientific works, folklore collections; the origin of the literary process, the printing of the first literary works in Ukrainian under the local Ukrainians authorship; the development of a network of educational institutions with the study of the Ukrainian language, the treatment (taking the linguistic situation into account) of the own scientific and didactic material in the mother tongue, literature, history and culture of the Ukrainians in Moldova; the increase of the number of ethnocultural communities, their active work concerning the preservation and development of Ukrainian culture, language, church, etc.
- From 2010 – the period of activity decline, trampling on the place, hesitation and discouragement of a considerable part of Ukrainians in the conditions of complicated political, social-economic and cultural transformations; significant losses, first of all in the field of education (by 2018 the number of educational institutions with the study of the native language has decreased almost trebly; no one educational institution with the Ukrainian language of teaching has been left; in fact, the ethnocultural component in preschool educational institutions is absent; the Russian assimilation of Ukrainian children is continued; the educators of kindergartens preparation at the Pedagogical College of Lipkany is reduced, and the Department of Ukrainian Language and Literature is broken up at the A. Russo Beltsi State University). On the other hand, against the backdrop of complicated political conflicts, civil mobilization of Ukrainians, primarily of the North of the Republic of Moldova is occurred. These are people, who have been the first to protect sovereignty, opposed openly the unionism and attempts of certain political forces to destroy the Republic of Moldova as an independent state. Local Ukrainians follow closely and react painfully on the tragic events in Ukraine.
The local Ukrainian population in the difficult historical conditions of separation has kept mainly the all-Ukrainian basis of material and spiritual culture. Despite the fact that since the proclamation of independence till 2018 the number of Ukrainians in the Republic of Moldova has decreased by almost 200 thousand people, and self-awareness of a large part of them is characterized by a certain ambivalence, the Ukrainian community of the region has made a rapid break in its development in many fields, as education, science, literature, culture, media, public movement, etc. The complex social-economic and political processes of recent years, mass migration have influenced negatively on the ethnic processes among Ukrainians. Ukrainian schools have suffered the greatest losses. And the destruction of the Ukrainian component in education will inevitably affect negatively on the further development of the Ukrainians in Moldova.
Ukrainians of the Republic of Moldova, ethnic consciousness, material and spiritual culture, Ukrainian component in education, Ukrainian-language media.
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