a Ph.D. in History, a research fellow of Historical Studies Department at the Research Institute of Ukrainian Studies of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
Fair Trade as a Factor of Development of Tanning Domestic Craft of the Middle Over Dnipro Lands Ukrainians in the Late XIXth to Early XXth Centuries
Fair trade is considered to be a phenomenon of a great importance for the development of the workmanship in the Middle Over Dnipro Lands in the late XIXth – early XXth centuries. A considerable segment of the fair production belongs to the articles of leather handicraft industry. First of all, towns fairs have been the places to buy and sell the leather goods, made by small craft workers. Common rural and town inhabitants have been the buyers. They purchase leather high boots, shoes (for men, women, children), sheepskin coats, lambskin hats, harness. Both readymade production and raw material are sold at the fairs. These are the goods for leather processing and raw skins, subsidiary materials (lime, oak bark); for shoemaking and harnessmaking crafts – the finished skins of various sorts, the raw hide leather (which is untanned). The goods turnover has been a small one at such fairs. Insignificant fairs are held, as a rule, at the weekends and holidays. They are aimed to satisfy the local inhabitants demands.
Large wholesale fairs are organized in the investigated region in the definite terms. For example, Illinskyi fair in Poltava is held from July, 1 till July, 31, the Shrovetide fair in Romny is carried out from February, 10 till March, 10. The representatives from all corners of the Russian Empire have been there. The goods turnover includes the millions of Karbovantsi, as the wares have been purchased in uncommonly large lots. In particular, Illinskyi fair has been on the third place (after Nyzhehorodskyi and Irbitskyi fairs) in the Russian Empire according to the trade turnover scopes. Large handicraft plants and leather factories have sold the production there. Wealthy merchants and manufacturers are considered as the buyers.
It should be mentioned that the fairs in the Middle Over Dnipro Lands have a mixed choice of articles. However, some fairs, middle in the scope, (for example, in Kremenchuk and Kostiantynohrad of Poltava province) have specialized in the sale of raw not worked out skins.
Particular attention is paid to some fair traditions connected with purchase and sale of leather and sheepskin goods, such as prayer saying on the successful bargaining, handshake at the good price establishment, wetting a bargain as the sign of agreement fastening, etc.
The conducted research enables to consider the fair trade as an important factor of the leather handicraft industry development of the Ukrainians of the Middle Over Dnipro Lands in the late XIXth – early XXth centuries, because at the fairs the craftsmen can not only sell their products and buy row materials, but they also establish local and interregional contacts, assisting the increasing of demands on the production and its area extension.
fair, leather handicraft industry, shoemaking craft, sale, choice.
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