a PhD hab, full professor, a chief of Regional History of Ukraine Department of the Institute of History of Ukraine at the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Influence of Scientific Discourses on Processes of National Consciousness Formation in Ukraine in the Mid- to Late XIXth to Early XXth Century
The article analyses trends of searching for models of nation-building and state-building in the Ukrainian society at the turn of the XIXth and XXth centuries, as well as traces preconditions of creating the XIXth-century Ukrainian national projects in the intellectual environment. An emphasis is placed on clarifying the influence of the phenomena of extremity, fractality and hybrid identity on the development of socio-political attitudes, as well as over the processes of the Ukrainians’ national consciousness formation. The main milestones in the development of nation-building processes of the second half of the XIXth to early XXth centuries are determined. On the ground of Miroslav Hrochʼs scheme given is an auctorial model of periodization of scientific researches and discourses on problems of national identity. It is proven that discourses on the themes of nation-building and state-building deserve to be the object of scientific analysis. Whether they are remote in time or modern, aimed at affirming a national idea or, conversely, at denying its inherent creative potential, they have already become part of the subject field of intellectual history and as such are suitable for systematic research in the courses of historical-genetic, cultural and other approaches. It was in the XIXth century that an intensive process of the Ukrainian nation’s representation began, which lasts to this day. It is useful to trace what stimulated and inhibited it over a hundred years ago and what destructive factors hinder the formation of national identities in the face of heightened turbulence in the modern world. In this regard, the problem of the axiological value of identities that can appear not due to but contrary to adverse life circumstances comes into practice.
The conclusions outline the relationship between scientific and extra-scientific components in the process of nation-building, submit both ways to find answers to the challenges of the time, and means of minimizing the imperial pressure through the introduction into the public consciousness of the ideas of national liberation. Today, these problems are doubly relevant due to the direct necessity to clarify the possibilities and effectiveness of domestic resistance to the reincarnation of imperial ideas, which occurs in the Russian historiography. They are also topical in connection with the search for an answer to the question crucial to the Ukrainian history: why significant consolidation endeavours of intellectuals ultimately lead to deepening the line of demarcation, rather than to its smoothing. The Ukrainian projects of the mid- to late XIXth to early XXth centuries – too different, sometimes inherently contradictory and inconsistent – nevertheless give an idea of the power of resistance to the imperial pressure, which has eventually become a means of social mobilization and promoted the development of national liberation movement from a cultural to a political phase. Their distinct consolidation context with the representation of the idea of nation popular in the XIXth century is an evidence of the intellectual maturity of local elites, as well as their awareness of a potential for solidarity.
national consciousness, national identity, socio-political attitudes, social values, national projects, scientific discourses.
- BROGI BERCOFF, Giovanna. Does a Canon of Ukrainian Literary Baroque Exist? In: Natalia YAKOVENKO, ed.‑in‑chief, The Ukrainian Review of the Humanities. Translated from English by Oleksandra FEDORKO. Kyiv: Criticism, 2012, iss.16–17, pp. 53–54 [in Ukrainian].
- 2.BUZGALIN, Alexandr. Dialectics: Reactualization in the World of Global Transformations. In: Boris PRUZHYNIN, ed.‑in‑chief, ProblemsofPhilosophy. Moscow: Science, 2009, no. 5, pp.20–35 [in Russian].
- VENHERSKA, Viktoriya. «Ukrainian Projects» and Nation-Building in the Romanov and Habsburg Empires (Late Eighteenth to Early Twentieth Century). Zhytomyr, 2013, 448pp. [in Ukrainian].
- VIDNIANSKYI, Stepan. World War I as a Manifestation of the European Civilization Crisis and Its Impact on the Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe. In: Valeriy SMOLIY (editorial board’s chair), Oleksandr REYENT (managing editor), Oleksandr LYSENKO (deputy managing editor), Yuriy BERESTEN et al (composite author). The Great War of 1914–1918 and Ukraine: in Two Books. NAS of Ukraine’s Institute of History of Ukraine. Kyiv: CLIO, 2014, vol. 1: Historical Essays, pp. 62–80 [in Ukrainian].
- HORBAN, Tetiana. The Evolution of the Idea of National Self-Determination in the Ukrainian Socio-Political Thought of the Late XIXth to the First Quarter of the XXthCentury. Kyiv: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine’s Kuras Institute of Political and Ethno-National Studies, 2010, 381 pp. [in Ukrainian].
- HRYTSAK, Yaroslav. Passions around Nationalism. Historical Essays. Kyiv: Criticism, 2004, 344pp. [in Ukrainian].
- HRUSHEVSKYI, Mykhaylo. The Advance of Ukrainian Political and Social Thought in the Nineteenth Century. In: Mykhaylo HRUSHEVSKYI. The Works in 50Volumes. Lviv: Svit, 2002, vol. 1: Series Socio-Political Works (1894–1907), pp. 397–404 [in Ukrainian].
- DRAHOMANOV, Mykhaylo. Selected Works. Kyiv: Lybid, 1991, 688pp. [in Ukrainian].
- YEFREMOV, Serhiy. Selected Works. Articles. Scientific Studies. Monographs. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 2002, 760pp. [in Ukrainian].
- KOLESNYK, Iryna. The Ukrainian Historiography: A Conceptual History. Kyiv: NAS of Ukraine’s Institute of History of Ukraine, 2013, 566pp. [in Ukrainian].
- KRESINA, Iryna. Ukrainian National Consciousness and Modern Political Processes: An Ethnopolitical Analysis: A Monograph. Kyiv: Higher School, 1998, 391pp. [in Ukrainian].
- Lypynsky, Vyacheslav. Letters to Brothers-Agrarians about the Idea and Organization of Ukrainian Monarchism. Kyiv; Philadelphia, 1995, 470pp. [in Ukrainian].
- LISNYCHUK, Oles. The Problem of Identifying the Subject of Ukraine’s National Interests: A Discursive Interpretation. In: Yuriy LEVENETS, ed.‑in‑chief, Scientific Notes of the Kuras Institute of Political and Ethno-National Studies of NAS of Ukraine, 2011, iss. 5(55), pp. 30–40 [in Ukrainian].
- LOTOTSKYI, Oleksandr. Pages from the Past. Warsaw, 1934, pt.III, 398 pp. [in Ukrainian].
- MALSHYNA,Kateryna, Yevhen SINKEVYCH, Jurij PEROVŠEK. Ukrainian and Slovenian National Ideas in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Analysis. In: Valeriy SMOLIY, ed.‑in‑chief, Ukrainian Historical Journal. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 2015, no. 4, pp. 127–138 [in Ukrainian].
- MASNENKO, Vitaliy. Historical Thought and Nation-Building in Ukraine (Late XIXthto the First Third of the XXth Century). Kyiv; Cherkasy: Echo-Plus, 2001, 440 pp. [in Ukrainian].
- NAHORNA, Larysa. Historical Culture: A Concept, Information Resource, and Reflective Potential. Kyiv: I. Kuras IPENS of Ukraine, 2014, 382pp. [in Ukrainian].
- NAHORNA, Larysa. Changes in Regional Consciousness in the Framework of Hybrid Confrontations: Stressful and Traumatic Codes in the Space of Memory. In: Valeriy SMOLIY, ed.‑in‑chief, Yaroslava VERMENYCH, deputy ed.‑in‑chief, Regional History of Ukraine: Collected Scientific Papers. Kyiv, 2017, iss. 11, pp.53–70 [in Ukrainian].
- SMOLIY, Valeriy (ed.‑in‑chief). National Question in Ukraine of the XXthto Early XXIst Century: Historical Essays. Kyiv: Nike-Centre, 2012, 592 pp. [in Ukrainian].
- The Marginality of the Centre in Contemporary National Historical Narratives. In: Ilya Gerasimov, ed.‑in‑chief, Ab Imperio: Studies of New Imperial History and Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Spac: A Quarterly, 2012. № 1. pp. 47–101 [in Ukrainian].
- SEKO, Yaroslav. The Slavic Dimension of the Great War of 1914–1918. In: Lesia ALEKSIYEVETS, ed.-in-chief, Ukraine – Europe – World: An International Collection of Scientific Papers. History, International Relations Series. Ternopil: Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, 2014, iss. 14, pp.89–99 [in Ukrainian].
- BAGGEHUFWUDT, Aleksandr. A Secret Report of the Poltava Governor Baggehufwudt to the Minister of Internal Affairs on the Ukrainian Movement and Measures of Confronting It. Poltava, 1917, 11p [in Russian].
- Lesya Ukrainka. The Works in 10Volumes. Kyiv: Scientific Thought, 1965, vol. 8, 380 p [in Ukrainian].
- HROCH, Miroslav. Historical Preconditions of Nationalism in Central and Eastern European Countries. In: Kurt Jahn EGBERT (editor). Nationalism in Late and Post-Communist Europe. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2010, vol. 1: The Failed Nationalism of Multinational and Partial National States, pp. 107–121 [in Russian].