a Ph.D. in History, a director of the Transcarpathian Museum of Folk Architecture and Customs in Uzhhorod, an associate professor at Archeology, Ethnology and Cultural Studies Department, State Higher Educational Establishment Uzhhorod National University. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0644-9725
Traditional Folk Clothing of Transcarpathian Hungarians in the mid XIXth through to the First Half of the XXth Century
The author, based on available literature, archival and field ethnographic materials, as well as a fund collection of the Transcarpathian Museum of Folk Architecture and Customs, conducts, in his article, a comprehensive analysis of components of the traditional folk women’s and men’s clothing of Transcarpathian Hungarians in the mid-XIXth through to the first half of the XXth century. Hungarians have lived compactly in the region’s borderland. The centre of their settlement is Berehovo District. The article describes in detail the process of cutting women’s chemises in the region under study: the condition of shirts and sleeves. The author pays a special attention to embellishing shirts with embroidery. The region’s Hungarians were characterized by the use of various types of satin stitch technique. The ornamental composition of embroidery is dominated by a variety of plant compositions, with tulips, violets, and cornflowers as popular motifs. In folk costumes of the region’s Hungarians, embroidery was harmoniously combined with lace. An ancient type of men’s outerwear of Transcarpathian Hungarians was a cloth coat (szűr, cifraszűr). It has common features with the neighbouring Lemko’s chuha, and Hutsul and Bukovynian manty. Within this type of clothing, to a greater extent than in other ones, features of purely domestic purpose and of highly artistic decoration with embroidery and applique were combined. The decoration of szűr is marked by Western European influences of various styles in combination with traditional Hungarian folk art.
The collected material shows that during the XIXth through to the first half of the XXth century, both in women’s and men’s clothing of the region’s Hungarians, there were changes related to the emergence of new forms of attire: women’s costume (Magyar ruhá), cifraszűr, men’s three-piece suit (suit jacket, breeches, and tank top (laybi)), and supplantation of white women’s bunda by red festive ones, etc.
folk clothing, Hungarians, chemise, skirt, belt, apron, breeches, tank top, outerwear, headwear and footwear.
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