a head of The Over Dnipro Lands and the Ukrainian South Research Department of the National Museum of Folk Architecture and Folkways of Ukraine
Place Names as People's Vivid Historical Memory
(After Expeditionary Materials from Velykyi Bereznyi District, Transcarpathian Region)
Toponyms and ancient heraldry are considered to be a peculiar encyclopaedia of ethnology, human memory of the people, where the history of every village settling is fixed. The systematized material, collected in the expeditionary business trips to Lemkivschyna from the old inhabitants of the villages and regional ethnographers in 2000–2008 is presented in the article. The information is connected with the names of forests, corners (hushtaky), streams, lakes, studenychky (wells), mountains, rocks, hills, mountain valleys, mountain passes, mountain cavities, gullies, precipices and natural boundaries. It gives an opportunity to introduce the considerable scientific and historical information into the scientific circulation.
Ancient heraldry also complements and reveals the history of villages. The arms of rural communes are found on the old rural seals more frequently. For example, hunting has old-established traditions in the investigated villages. They are surrounded with the forests, where the whild animals have constantly been found. These are deer, wild boars, roes, martens, hares, squirrels, badgers, chamoises, lynxes, wolves, bears, foxes. The fact is confirmed on the stamps of Zahorb, Sil, Kostryno (a bear is depicted) villages.
Many natural boundaries, which names are connected with the certain features of their location, natural signs are situated around the villages. The natural and geographic landscape, vegetable and animal world have surrounded the person life constantly and it is remained in the names.
Old traditional archaic forms of the soil preparation for sowing, its cultivation, ancient agricultural equipment and workings instruments are fixed in the names of corners (hushtaky), streets, mountain valleys, forest glades, mountain cavities, gullies, precipices, which are situated in the villages and around them.
Quite a few local names of natural objects, like the mountain top, hill, rock, boggy lowlands, quagmire, field, etc. are found among the toponyms of the investigated villages. Many of them are connected with the names of the owners or a certain event.
The toponymy of each village of Lemkivshchyna in Velyke Berezne district, like Strychava, Kniahynia, Zahorb, Zavosyno, Zabrid, Stuzhytsia, Domashyno, Uzhok, Volosianka, Tykhyi, Husnyi, Liuta, Sukhyi, Smerekove, Bukivtseve, Chornoholova, Myrcha, Sil, Velykyi Bereznyi includes over three hundred and more names of different places and natural objects. These are the language monuments and history of the villages with present unique peculiarities.
village, names of the corners, natural boundaries, rivers, mountains, mountain valleys, streams, studenychky (wells), streets, the surnames, which are widespread in the village, nicknames of people.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in 2006 in the village of Domashyno from Mariya Chykut, born in
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova on May 12, 2000 in the village of Zahorb from Vasyl Diakovets, born in 1923, and urban-type settlement of Velykyi Bereznyi from A. Blyznets (Heimatforscher), born in 1937.
- Recorded by Ye.Haiova in 2005 from I. Popadych, born in 1983.
- Recorded by Ye.Haiova on August 17, 2004 in the village of Smerekove from Fedir Kyrlyk, born in 1933, and Melaniya Kyrlyk, born in Recorded by the authoress on June 11, 2001 in the village of Smerekove from Yuliya Kurtanych, born in 1927.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in 2006 in the village of Bukivtseve from Olena Bondar, born in 1920.
- Recorded by Ye.Haiova in 2006 in the village of Stuzhytsia from Oleksiy Behen, born in 1918, Mariya Yankovska, born in 1927, and Mykhailo Fedio, born in 1935.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in 2009 in the village of Kostryno from Oksana Mastiak.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in 2009 in the village of Volosianka from Nataliya Tsap.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in 2009 in the village of Zabrid from Vasyl Heniuta.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Liuta from Mariya Perebziak, born in 1927.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Stavne from Nataliya Khyta.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova from Avhustyn Blyznets (Heimatforscher), born in 1937, in the village of Velykyi Bereznyi.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in 2000–2006 in the village of Strychava from Ivan Tsar, Mykhailo Kurtiak, Yuliya Blyznets, Hanna Opalenyk, Vasyl Opalenyk, Anna Pihosh, born in 1931, Mykola Pekar.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Verkhovyna Bystra from Oleksiy Sharanych.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Malyi Bereznyi from Vasyl Tsuha.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Chornoholova on August 22, 2007 from Yuliya Revta, born in 1916, Yuliya Bachkai and on September 25, 2003 from Anna Kovach, born in 1940.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova from Avhustyn Blyznets (Heimatforscher), born in 1937, from the urban-type settlement of Velykyi Bereznyi, I. Kotliar and Olena Popadych from the village of Myrcha.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova on July 23, 2006 in the village of Sil from Mariya Tur, born in 1921, Ivan Tur, born in 1905, Mykola Palka.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Roztotska Pastil from Petro Yurtseha, born in 1919.
- Recorded by Ye. Haiova in the village of Tykhyi from Anna Lukan, born in 1937.