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Modern Rural Settlements and Habitations of the Belarusians (Late XXth to Early XXIst Centuries)

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The authors of the publication:
KASPIAROVICH HALINA
p.:
64-76
UDC:
728.69476)“19/20”
Bibliographic description:
Kaspiarovich, H. (2018) Modern Rural Settlements and Habitations of the Belarusians (Late XXth to Early XXIst Centuries). Folk Art and Etnology, 2 (372), 64–76.

Author

KASPIAROVICH HALINA

a Doctor of History, an associate professor, a leading research fellow at Ethnology Department of the Centre for Belarusian Culture, Language and Literature Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

 

MODERN RURAL SETTLEMENTS AND HABITATIONS OF THE BELARUSIANS (LATE XXth TO EARLY XXIst CENTURIES)

 

Abctract

The article considers changes in rural settlements and types of dwelling in the Republic of Belarus. A brief analysis of origins and historical development of the main types of settlements enabled the authoress to show preservation and continuity in fundamental elements of the Belarusian material culture. The authoress mainly describes modern settlements (their placement, sizes, types according to population amount, and layout).

The article characterizes new types of settlement – rural estates (about 1500 rural estates have received the status of rural settlements); agro-estates (there are 2263 agro-estates operating in Belarus, with more than 300 thousand tourists visiting them anniversarily); family estates (there are some 500 families setting up their family estates); farm estates, ecological settlements, as well as their role in today’s ethno-cultural processes.

The article notes that the basic principle of a rural settlement planning solution is the functional usage of premises, divided into two zones: a residential district and a production area. A rural settlement’s centre usually comprises administrative buildings, educational, cultural and health-care facilities, shopping centres, and religious buildings. A great role in public policy of rural settlements’ beautification is given to the social sphere, including the housing development (for instance, 1,511,000 m² of habitation (or 5.3 flats per 1,000 population) were built in rural settlements in 2015). The dwellings built by estates should have indispensable outer utility and auxiliary rooms, plots of land supplied with necessary engineering infrastructure (gas, running water, electricity). Manufacturing facilities of agro-industrial complexes are placed beyond the borders of rural settlements. Work on renovating and updating the operating facilities, as well as building the new ones, is being carried out at present.

The article also shows changes in Belarusian housing development (its constituent parts), including the usage of building materials and constructions, dwelling arrangement and beautification, decoration of plots of land (the usage of elements of landscape design and small architectural forms), and interior peculiar features. Based on poll data, the article shows population’s current attitudes towards new types of dwelling

 

Keywords

settlements, types of settlement, agricultural settlements, family estates, agricultural estates, resettlement, dwelling, peculiar features of interior design.

 

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